Raising Expectations and Achievement Levels for All Mathematics Students

The research aimed to explore the potential of a pedagogical approach called ‘Complex Instruction’ (CI) that was designed in the US to make groupwork more equal, addressing the status differences that often emerge when students work in groups. The report is set against a backdrop of an enduring problem of low and inequitable achievement in mathematics, high levels of innumeracy among the population and declining numbers of students taking mathematics to advanced levels.